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Cereal fertilization guide

Cereal Leaflet

Cereals are easily adapted to a wide variety of soils.

In deep fertile, medium to heavy, well-drained soils, wheat exploits moisture and nutrients and achieves high yields.

Barley, due to its small biological cycle and its resistance to high temperature and drought, takes advantage of the shallow soils of dry areas.

In waterlogged soils, the plants suffer from diseases and reduce yields, so should be excluded from the cultivation of cereals.

Regarding acidity, they grow normally and produce high yields in a pH range of 5.5 to 7.5, with wheat and barley preferring most alkaline, while rye and oats the most acidic soils.

Modern varieties of winter cereals require favorable soil-climatic conditions and adequate nutrients levels in order to increase their productive potential of crop. To achieve high yields of grains and maintain soil fertility, depending on the plant species of the variety and amount of rainfall, the cereals require the following fertilization units:

Fertilization units (kg/hectare)
Type N P2O5 K2O*
Soft wheat 150 – 180 50 – 80 50 – 80
Durum wheat 140 – 160 40 – 60 50 – 60
Barley 80 – 120 40 – 50 40 – 50

In cereals, the robust growth of plants and the achievement of high yields on grain, require the satisfactory supply the crop with Nitrogen and Phosphorus. The adequacy of these elements at particular stages of development, decisively influences the evolution of the culture and shapes the final height and qualities of production:

  • ● From sowing until the beginning of tillering, Nitrogen and Phosphorus favor the development of rich root system and promote the absorption of water and nutrients, as well as the grain filling in later stages of development. The basic fertilization of the crop with these elements is a prerequisite for good crop establishment and growth of vegetative organs.
  • ● At the stage of tillering, Nitrogen and Phosphorus promote the formation of productive tillers, increase the number of ears and total leaf area per hectare and create the conditions for high productivity of the crop.
  • ● At the stage of culm elongation, Nitrogen sufficiency helps tillers to survive, increases the number of ears per hectare and the number of grains per ears, prolongs plant life and increases fruit production.
  • ● At the stage of ear emergence, Nitrogen prolongs the activity and life of leaf, increases weight of grain and its protein content and improves production quality, especially durum wheat.

The basic fertilization is absolutely necessary because it is impossible to grow cereals and achieve high yields in low fertility soils without sufficient nutrients. In determining the quantity and type of fertilizer to be used, must be considered the structure of the soil, the amount and the distribution of annual rainfall in the area.

Apply all the quantity of Phosphorus required (30-60 kg/ha) and 1/2 or 1/3 (50-80 kg/ha) of total Nitrogen to cover the need for the formation of organs (leaves – root), ensure robust plant growth during winter and encourage tillers formation to the next stage of development.

Consequently, in basic fertilization, fertilizers with high Ammoniacal (Nutriphos) or stabilized Nitrogen (NutrActive) are preferred, since they escalate the supply of plants based on their needs and decreases the losses due to leaching.

Cereals fertilizing
Type of Fertilizer Stage of application Dosage (kg/ha.)

NutrActive 20-10 20-10-0 (20)
NutrActive expert 20-20-0 (22)
NutrActive smart 24-12-0 (20)
Ωmega fert 15-25-0 (29)
Ωmega fert 18-23-0 (23)
Nutriphos classic 16-20-0 (32)
Nutriphos 20-10 20-10-0 (20)
Nutriphos 22-11 22-11-0 (22)
Nutriphos oxisoil 15-13-0 (35) +10CaO +2MgO
Nutriphos oxifertil 12-12-0 (28)

Basic fertilization

(sowing)

 
 
250 – 300 kg

* The dosages mentioned are indicative. Regarding the fertilizing of crops, one should take into account the advice of local agronomists.

The top-dressing fertilization supplies the rest of the total amount of Nitrogen in one or two applications, depending on the type of crop. In soft wheat, it is recommended to apply a single application during the tillering stage, while in the durum wheat an additional application can be made before the ear emergence, in order to increase production and improve the quality of grains.

Nitrogen requirements and the exact time of application, are determined by the density of plants per square meter (m2).

  • ● In fields with low density plants required early top-dressing fertilization (before or at the start of tillering) with high Nitrogen levels in order to enhance the number of tillers.
  • ● In fields with high density plants required later top-dressing fertilization (after mid-tillering) and conservative Nitrogen levels in order to avoid susceptibility to diseases and lodging.

Especially in early applications, prior to and during the tillering stage, it is recommended to use NutrActive fertilizers, which allow the single application of surface Nitrogen and provide adequate nutrition to plants even in the last critical stages of ear emergence and filling of grains, significantly increasing production.

Cereals fertilizing
Type of Fertilizer Stage of application Dosage (kg/ha.)

NutrActive 27N 27-0-0 (28)
Novacan 27N stabil 27-0-0
Nutrammon +Επικ. 34,5-0-0
Nutrammon 33,5-0-0
Nitrocan 26-0-0

Top-dressing fertilization

(before or during tillering)

 
200 – 300 kg

* The dosages mentioned are indicative. Regarding the fertilizing of crops, one should take into account the advice of local agronomists.

(Basic – top-dressing fertilization)

  • ● Prolonged nutrition of the crop with slow-release Nitrogen
  • ● Complete nutrition, according to the requirements of the crop at each stage of development
  • ● Minimized losses due to leaching and vaporization
  • ● Increase of yield per square kilometer due to the regular supply of both Nitrogen forms to the plants.
  • ● Robust root system growth and improved water and nutrient uptake.
  • ● Flexibility in the fertilization application timing and guaranteed Nitrogen supply under all weather conditions.
  • ● Possibility of early application of surface fertilization in dry or wet areas without the risk of losing the fertilizer
  • ● Save in fertilization application workload and cost due to decreased applications.

(Basic fertilization)

  • ● Combine high content of Ammoniacal Nitrogen and high Phosphorus assimilability, increasing the efficiency of basic fertilization.
  • ● Rich in Sulphur, improve the exploitation of nutrients and contribute to the complete nutrition of the crop.
  • ● Stimulate the creation of rich root system and ensure the best establishment and development of crop in all types of soils.

(Top-dressing fertilization)

  • ● Supply the crop with fully water-soluble and assimilable Nitrogen and provide them with the energy required for rapid growth.
  • ● Their chemical composition improves the uptake of other elements (K, Ca, Mg), promotes the fruit setting and contributes to increase production.
  • ● They have little effect on soil acidity and demand lower water requirements compared to other Nitrogen fertilizers.
  • ● Increase yields and protein content of grains, improving the quality of the cereal.

Cereals are easily adapted to a wide variety of soils.

In deep fertile, medium to heavy, well-drained soils, wheat exploits moisture and nutrients and achieves high yields.

Barley, due to its small biological cycle and its resistance to high temperature and drought, takes advantage of the shallow soils of dry areas.

In waterlogged soils, the plants suffer from diseases and reduce yields, so should be excluded from the cultivation of cereals.

Regarding acidity, they grow normally and produce high yields in a pH range of 5.5 to 7.5, with wheat and barley preferring most alkaline, while rye and oats the most acidic soils.

Modern varieties of winter cereals require favorable soil-climatic conditions and adequate nutrients levels in order to increase their productive potential of crop. To achieve high yields of grains and maintain soil fertility, depending on the plant species of the variety and amount of rainfall, the cereals require the following fertilization units:

Fertilization units (kg/hectare)
Type N P2O5 K2O*
Soft wheat 150 – 180 50 – 80 50 – 80
Durum wheat 140 – 160 40 – 60 50 – 60
Barley 80 – 120 40 – 50 40 – 50

In cereals, the robust growth of plants and the achievement of high yields on grain, require the satisfactory supply the crop with Nitrogen and Phosphorus. The adequacy of these elements at particular stages of development, decisively influences the evolution of the culture and shapes the final height and qualities of production:

  • ● From sowing until the beginning of tillering, Nitrogen and Phosphorus favor the development of rich root system and promote the absorption of water and nutrients, as well as the grain filling in later stages of development. The basic fertilization of the crop with these elements is a prerequisite for good crop establishment and growth of vegetative organs.
  • ● At the stage of tillering, Nitrogen and Phosphorus promote the formation of productive tillers, increase the number of ears and total leaf area per hectare and create the conditions for high productivity of the crop.
  • ● At the stage of culm elongation, Nitrogen sufficiency helps tillers to survive, increases the number of ears per hectare and the number of grains per ears, prolongs plant life and increases fruit production.
  • ● At the stage of ear emergence, Nitrogen prolongs the activity and life of leaf, increases weight of grain and its protein content and improves production quality, especially durum wheat.

The basic fertilization is absolutely necessary because it is impossible to grow cereals and achieve high yields in low fertility soils without sufficient nutrients. In determining the quantity and type of fertilizer to be used, must be considered the structure of the soil, the amount and the distribution of annual rainfall in the area.

Apply all the quantity of Phosphorus required (30-60 kg/ha) and 1/2 or 1/3 (50-80 kg/ha) of total Nitrogen to cover the need for the formation of organs (leaves – root), ensure robust plant growth during winter and encourage tillers formation to the next stage of development.

Consequently, in basic fertilization, fertilizers with high Ammoniacal (Nutriphos) or stabilized Nitrogen (NutrActive) are preferred, since they escalate the supply of plants based on their needs and decreases the losses due to leaching.

Cereals fertilizing
Type of Fertilizer Stage of application Dosage (kg/ha.)

NutrActive 20-10 20-10-0 (20)
NutrActive expert 20-20-0 (22)
NutrActive smart 24-12-0 (20)
Ωmega fert 15-25-0 (29)
Ωmega fert 18-23-0 (23)
Nutriphos classic 16-20-0 (32)
Nutriphos 20-10 20-10-0 (20)
Nutriphos 22-11 22-11-0 (22)
Nutriphos oxisoil 15-13-0 (35) +10CaO +2MgO
Nutriphos oxifertil 12-12-0 (28)

Basic fertilization

(sowing)

 
 
250 – 300 kg

* The dosages mentioned are indicative. Regarding the fertilizing of crops, one should take into account the advice of local agronomists.

The top-dressing fertilization supplies the rest of the total amount of Nitrogen in one or two applications, depending on the type of crop. In soft wheat, it is recommended to apply a single application during the tillering stage, while in the durum wheat an additional application can be made before the ear emergence, in order to increase production and improve the quality of grains.

Nitrogen requirements and the exact time of application, are determined by the density of plants per square meter (m2).

  • ● In fields with low density plants required early top-dressing fertilization (before or at the start of tillering) with high Nitrogen levels in order to enhance the number of tillers.
  • ● In fields with high density plants required later top-dressing fertilization (after mid-tillering) and conservative Nitrogen levels in order to avoid susceptibility to diseases and lodging.

Especially in early applications, prior to and during the tillering stage, it is recommended to use NutrActive fertilizers, which allow the single application of surface Nitrogen and provide adequate nutrition to plants even in the last critical stages of ear emergence and filling of grains, significantly increasing production.

Cereals fertilizing
Type of Fertilizer Stage of application Dosage (kg/ha.)

NutrActive 27N 27-0-0 (28)
Novacan 27N stabil 27-0-0
Nutrammon +Επικ. 34,5-0-0
Nutrammon 33,5-0-0
Nitrocan 26-0-0

Top-dressing fertilization

(before or during tillering)

 
200 – 300 kg

* The dosages mentioned are indicative. Regarding the fertilizing of crops, one should take into account the advice of local agronomists.

(Basic – top-dressing fertilization)

  • ● Prolonged nutrition of the crop with slow-release Nitrogen
  • ● Complete nutrition, according to the requirements of the crop at each stage of development
  • ● Minimized losses due to leaching and vaporization
  • ● Increase of yield per square kilometer due to the regular supply of both Nitrogen forms to the plants.
  • ● Robust root system growth and improved water and nutrient uptake.
  • ● Flexibility in the fertilization application timing and guaranteed Nitrogen supply under all weather conditions.
  • ● Possibility of early application of surface fertilization in dry or wet areas without the risk of losing the fertilizer
  • ● Save in fertilization application workload and cost due to decreased applications.

(Basic fertilization)

  • ● Combine high content of Ammoniacal Nitrogen and high Phosphorus assimilability, increasing the efficiency of basic fertilization.
  • ● Rich in Sulphur, improve the exploitation of nutrients and contribute to the complete nutrition of the crop.
  • ● Stimulate the creation of rich root system and ensure the best establishment and development of crop in all types of soils.

(Top-dressing fertilization)

  • ● Supply the crop with fully water-soluble and assimilable Nitrogen and provide them with the energy required for rapid growth.
  • ● Their chemical composition improves the uptake of other elements (K, Ca, Mg), promotes the fruit setting and contributes to increase production.
  • ● They have little effect on soil acidity and demand lower water requirements compared to other Nitrogen fertilizers.
  • ● Increase yields and protein content of grains, improving the quality of the cereal.
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