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Vine fertilization guide

Vine Leaflet

Vines are easily adaptable and they tend to produce satisfactory yields in most types of soil. They favor light to medium texture and well-drained soils, where the conditions are favorable for the root system to grow and the stocks produce grapes and wine of high quality. Table grape varieties produce higher quality yields in the medium texture and fertility, deeper and moist soils of lowland and coastal areas.

Very fertile, loamy, and rich in organic matter soils produce an increased yet delayed and of lower quality yield, while in many cases there is pronounced blossom dropping and reduced fruit setting, due to a competition with the vegetation.

Regarding their chemical characteristics, they favor neutral soils, with a pH of 6.5-7.5, yet can still grow with no particular problems within a greater range (4.5 – 8.5).

The root system of vines is quite extensive and is active from early spring to late autumn – sufficient time to absorb the essential fertilizing elements. Nevertheless, both the removal of nutrients through production and the intensive exploitation of vines make fertilizing an imperative and a necessary condition for the quantitative as well as qualitative improvement of the production.

Therefore, depending on the soil and climate conditions of the region, the type, age and annual load of the vineyard, it is possible to determine the nutritional needs and compile tables from which conclusions can be drawn and general directions for the yearly fertilization of the stocks can be planned.

Annual nutrient needs in kg/ha.
Type (N) (P2O5) (K2O) (CaO) (MgO)
Wine Grape 70 – 120 40 – 60 150 – 180 100 – 150 30 – 50
Raisin Grape 120 – 170 50 – 80 200 – 250 130 – 180 40 – 70
Table Grape 150 – 220 60 – 80 200 – 280 150 – 200 60 – 80

From sprouting to fruit setting

Από την εκβλάστηση έως και την καρπόδεση

This is a period of time during which the rate of nutrient intake by the roots and the capacity of synthesis of the leaves are not sufficient to cover the increased nutritional requirements of the crop.

At this stage, continued development is based solely on the movement of stored substances from older organs, such as the trunk and roots, and on the adequacy of the nutrients added during the winter with the basic fertilizing of the vineyard.

During the early stages of sprouting, Nitrogen plays a key role in the normal development of the plant. Gradually, as the stocks near flowering, their nutritional requirements increase and extend to other nutrients, such as Phosphorus (Ρ), Potassium (K), and Calcium (Ca). The trace elements of Iron (Fe), Boron (B) and Zinc (Zn) are also very important in this phase, as they actively participate in all metabolic processes from sprouting to fruit setting.

From fruit setting to the onset of ripening (polishing)

Από την καρπόδεση έως την έναρξη της ωρίμανσης (γυάλισμα)

This stage begins immediately after pollination with the formation of the young berry, continues with the rapid increase in size and weight, and is completed with the onset of ripening and the development of color in the colored varieties and shine in the white varieties.

The nutritional condition of stocks during this period significantly affects the final production, since the consumption rate of nutrients is maximized.

The vine exhibits greater demands in Nitrogen (N) at this stage more than at any other stage of the annual cycle.

Its requirements in Potassium (K) are high and progressively increase as the berries approach the polishing phase, while the requirements in Phosphorus (P) are also high and increasing.

The supply of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium after fruit setting is indispensable in high yield crops, in grape varieties destined to be dried, and in table varieties intensive vineyards, due to the high load and additional needs created by interventions with plant growth regulators.

From polishing to ripening

Από το Γυάλισμα έως την Ωρίμανση

During this stage, the elongation of the shoots stops, the berries more than double their weight, the acids contained are converted into sugars and develop the typical coloring of the variety.

It is the time period when the requirements of vines in Nitrogen (N) rapidly decrease, while the requirements in Potassium (K) significantly increase, resulting in the development of symptoms of temporary deficiencies in years of overproduction, due to the movement of large amounts of Potassium (K) from the leaves to the berries, and its participation in the synthesis of stored substances.

In irrigated vineyards, where the aim is high concentration of sugars, and in high load table varieties, the potassic fertilizing should be a standard cultivation technique at this stage in order to achieve high yields and a quality production.

The objective of basic fertilization is to meet the increased needs in nutrients, both at the early stages of the rapid growth of the shoots and formation of inflorescence, as well as later on, during the period of rapid growth and ripening of the berries.

The quantity and the rate of nutrients provided by basic fertilization are determined by the characteristics of the soil, its type, age and production orientation of the vineyard.

  • ● In non-irrigated vineyards that produce high quality wines, the full amount of fertilizer is provided through the basic fertilizing, and the needs of the crop in N, P, K, and Mg are fully covered. At the same time, any deficiencies in trace elements are corrected, as top-dressing fertilization is not feasible.
  •  ● Ιrrigated vineyards and high productivity table varieties and grapes that are destined to be dried are provided during the winter with:
    • ● 2/3 of the total required amount of Nitrogen (N) and Potassium (Κ)
    • ● 3/4 of Phosphorous (P) and Magnesium (Mg)

The precise time of fertilizing is determined by the type and characteristics of the soil and by the meteorological data of the area.

  • ● Therefore, in heavy clay soils and in areas with low precipitation the slow elements P and K should be integrated early in the winter (Dec. – Jan.), so that they are exposed to the winter rains that foster their movement in the ground, while N should be integrated in late winter or early spring, to avoid leaching and so that it is available to plants during the period of rapid growth of the shoots.
  • ● In light sandy soils and in areas with high precipitation all fertilizing should be realized in late winter (February) or early spring (early March), in order to minimize losses and so that they are available to plants in time.

Depending on the type and characteristics of the soil, the use of special compound fertilizers (Complefert) is recommended, which cover the needs of the vineyard in N, P, K, Mg, S, and at the same time provide significant amounts of Zn and B that are necessary to the plants.

Stabilized fertilizers (NutrActive) allow for basic fertilizing to be done all at once in mid-winter, ensuring adequate rainfall for the movement of P and K in the soil, as well as the protection of nitrogen from leaching.

Vine fertilizing
Type of Fertilizer Stage of application Dosage (kg/ha.)

NutrActive special 12-12-17 (30) +2MgO +TE
NutrActive magni-plus 14-7-14 (25) +4MgO +0,1Fe +0,1Zn
NutrActive triple-S 15-15-15 (25)
Ωmega fert 14-8-18 (30) +2MgO +TE
Ωmega fert 14-18-14 (27)
Complefert premium 8-12-18 (30) +2MgO +ΤΕ
Complefert special 12-8-17 (27) +2MgO +TE
Complefert extra 12-10-20 (28) +2MgO +ΤΕ
Complefert blue-star 12-12-17 (30) +2MgO +TE
Complefert magni-plus 14-7-14 (25) +4MgO +0,1Fe +0,1Zn

Basic fertilization

600 -1200 kg

* The dosages mentioned are indicative. Regarding the fertilizing of crops, one should take into account the advice of local agronomists.

The goal is to cover the needs of the plant in nutrients which are necessary for vegetative growth in the summer, flowering and fruit setting, as well as the development of the bolls.

Early application, before the emergence of the squares, is conducive to the timely entrance of the plants in the phase of reproduction, and it is essential to crop yields in the climate of Greece, where this plant has a limited growth cycle.

Dosage: – 1/2 of Nitrogen (Ν)

Ammoniacal Nitrogen increases flowering and reduces square, flower, and fruit shedding, which are caused when vegetative growth and fruiting compete with each other.

It is recommended that either Nitrogen fertilizers with high content in Ammoniacal Nitrogen (Fertammon) or stabilized Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NutrActive), which reduce Nitrogen losses from the soil and secure and adequate supply of the crops until the final stages of boll filling, be used once, or that Nitrogen be supplied in installments through the fertigation systems in the form of Ammonium Nitrate (Nutrammon solub), which provides the crops with a balanced ratio of Ammoniacal and Nitric Nitrogen.

Vine fertilizing
Type of Fertilizer Stage of application Dosage (kg/ha.)

NutrActive 27N 27-0-0 (28)
Nutractive Boro-plus 26Ν 26-0-0 (27) +0,3B
Novacan special 27N stabil 27-0-0 +5MgO +0,2B
Fertammon special 25-0-0 (28) + 0,5FeSO4 +0,5Zn
Nutrammon solub. 34,5-0-0
Nitrocan special 27-0-0 +5MgO +0,2B

(May-June)

Top-dressing fertilization of irrigated vineyards

Wine grape & Table & Raisin varieties

(June-August)

200-300 kg
Complefert master 15-5-20 (20) +2MgO +TE
Complefert extra 12-10-20 (20) +2MgO +TE
Complefert special 12-8-17 (27) +2MgO +TE
Complefert premium 8-12-18 (30) +2MgO +TE
200-400 kg

* The dosages mentioned are indicative. Regarding the fertilizing of crops, one should take into account the advice of local agronomists.

(Basic – top-dressing fertilization)

  • ● Extended nutrition of the vine, with slow-release Nitrogen
  • ● Integral nutrition in accordance with the requirements of the crop at each stage of development
  • ● Increased fructification due to the nutrition of stocks with both forms of Nitrogen
  • ● Minimization of losses due leaching and vaporization
  • ● Improved water and nutrient intake
  • ● High solubility of Phosphorus – up to 90% – for the nutrition of the crop in all types of soils
  • ● Flexibility with the time of fertilizing and guaranteed Nitrogen supply in all weather conditions
  • ● Possibility of basic fertilizing to be administered all at once in mid-winter, ensuring adequate rainfall for the movement of P and K in the soil without the risk of Nitrogen losses due to leaching
  • ● Labor and cost savings due to a smaller number of applications and quantity of fertilizer ς

(Basic – top-dressing fertilization)

  • ● Full in primary (N, P, K,), secondary (S, Mg), and trace elements (B, Fe, Zn), they offer integral nutrition to the vine with all the essential nutrients
  • ● Fully assimilable forms and a specialized ratio of the nutrients, tailored to the requirements of the stocks
  • ● High Ammoniacal Nitrogen content for an extended nutrition of the crop
  • ● Potassium in the form of Potassium Sulphate for higher production and of better quality
  • ● High solubility of Phosphorus – up to 90% – for the nutrition of the crop in all types of soils
  • ● Additional nutrition with Sulphur for a better utilization of the Nitrogen and Trace elements.
  • ● Yearly nutritional needs in kg/ha, Vineyard Type, Wine Varieties, Raisin Varieties, Table Varieties.

Vines are easily adaptable and they tend to produce satisfactory yields in most types of soil. They favor light to medium texture and well-drained soils, where the conditions are favorable for the root system to grow and the stocks produce grapes and wine of high quality. Table grape varieties produce higher quality yields in the medium texture and fertility, deeper and moist soils of lowland and coastal areas.

Very fertile, loamy, and rich in organic matter soils produce an increased yet delayed and of lower quality yield, while in many cases there is pronounced blossom dropping and reduced fruit setting, due to a competition with the vegetation.

Regarding their chemical characteristics, they favor neutral soils, with a pH of 6.5-7.5, yet can still grow with no particular problems within a greater range (4.5 – 8.5).

The root system of vines is quite extensive and is active from early spring to late autumn – sufficient time to absorb the essential fertilizing elements. Nevertheless, both the removal of nutrients through production and the intensive exploitation of vines make fertilizing an imperative and a necessary condition for the quantitative as well as qualitative improvement of the production.

Therefore, depending on the soil and climate conditions of the region, the type, age and annual load of the vineyard, it is possible to determine the nutritional needs and compile tables from which conclusions can be drawn and general directions for the yearly fertilization of the stocks can be planned.

Annual nutrient needs in kg/ha.
Type (N) (P2O5) (K2O) (CaO) (MgO)
Wine Grape 70 – 120 40 – 60 150 – 180 100 – 150 30 – 50
Raisin Grape 120 – 170 50 – 80 200 – 250 130 – 180 40 – 70
Table Grape 150 – 220 60 – 80 200 – 280 150 – 200 60 – 80

From sprouting to fruit setting

Από την εκβλάστηση έως και την καρπόδεση

This is a period of time during which the rate of nutrient intake by the roots and the capacity of synthesis of the leaves are not sufficient to cover the increased nutritional requirements of the crop.

At this stage, continued development is based solely on the movement of stored substances from older organs, such as the trunk and roots, and on the adequacy of the nutrients added during the winter with the basic fertilizing of the vineyard.

During the early stages of sprouting, Nitrogen plays a key role in the normal development of the plant. Gradually, as the stocks near flowering, their nutritional requirements increase and extend to other nutrients, such as Phosphorus (Ρ), Potassium (K), and Calcium (Ca). The trace elements of Iron (Fe), Boron (B) and Zinc (Zn) are also very important in this phase, as they actively participate in all metabolic processes from sprouting to fruit setting.

From fruit setting to the onset of ripening (polishing)

Από την καρπόδεση έως την έναρξη της ωρίμανσης (γυάλισμα)

This stage begins immediately after pollination with the formation of the young berry, continues with the rapid increase in size and weight, and is completed with the onset of ripening and the development of color in the colored varieties and shine in the white varieties.

The nutritional condition of stocks during this period significantly affects the final production, since the consumption rate of nutrients is maximized.

The vine exhibits greater demands in Nitrogen (N) at this stage more than at any other stage of the annual cycle.

Its requirements in Potassium (K) are high and progressively increase as the berries approach the polishing phase, while the requirements in Phosphorus (P) are also high and increasing.

The supply of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium after fruit setting is indispensable in high yield crops, in grape varieties destined to be dried, and in table varieties intensive vineyards, due to the high load and additional needs created by interventions with plant growth regulators.

From polishing to ripening

Από το Γυάλισμα έως την Ωρίμανση

During this stage, the elongation of the shoots stops, the berries more than double their weight, the acids contained are converted into sugars and develop the typical coloring of the variety.

It is the time period when the requirements of vines in Nitrogen (N) rapidly decrease, while the requirements in Potassium (K) significantly increase, resulting in the development of symptoms of temporary deficiencies in years of overproduction, due to the movement of large amounts of Potassium (K) from the leaves to the berries, and its participation in the synthesis of stored substances.

In irrigated vineyards, where the aim is high concentration of sugars, and in high load table varieties, the potassic fertilizing should be a standard cultivation technique at this stage in order to achieve high yields and a quality production.

The objective of basic fertilization is to meet the increased needs in nutrients, both at the early stages of the rapid growth of the shoots and formation of inflorescence, as well as later on, during the period of rapid growth and ripening of the berries.

The quantity and the rate of nutrients provided by basic fertilization are determined by the characteristics of the soil, its type, age and production orientation of the vineyard.

  • ● In non-irrigated vineyards that produce high quality wines, the full amount of fertilizer is provided through the basic fertilizing, and the needs of the crop in N, P, K, and Mg are fully covered. At the same time, any deficiencies in trace elements are corrected, as top-dressing fertilization is not feasible.
  •  ● Ιrrigated vineyards and high productivity table varieties and grapes that are destined to be dried are provided during the winter with:
    • ● 2/3 of the total required amount of Nitrogen (N) and Potassium (Κ)
    • ● 3/4 of Phosphorous (P) and Magnesium (Mg)

The precise time of fertilizing is determined by the type and characteristics of the soil and by the meteorological data of the area.

  • ● Therefore, in heavy clay soils and in areas with low precipitation the slow elements P and K should be integrated early in the winter (Dec. – Jan.), so that they are exposed to the winter rains that foster their movement in the ground, while N should be integrated in late winter or early spring, to avoid leaching and so that it is available to plants during the period of rapid growth of the shoots.
  • ● In light sandy soils and in areas with high precipitation all fertilizing should be realized in late winter (February) or early spring (early March), in order to minimize losses and so that they are available to plants in time.

Depending on the type and characteristics of the soil, the use of special compound fertilizers (Complefert) is recommended, which cover the needs of the vineyard in N, P, K, Mg, S, and at the same time provide significant amounts of Zn and B that are necessary to the plants.

Stabilized fertilizers (NutrActive) allow for basic fertilizing to be done all at once in mid-winter, ensuring adequate rainfall for the movement of P and K in the soil, as well as the protection of nitrogen from leaching.

Vine fertilizing
Type of Fertilizer Stage of application Dosage (kg/ha.)

NutrActive special 12-12-17 (30) +2MgO +TE
NutrActive magni-plus 14-7-14 (25) +4MgO +0,1Fe +0,1Zn
NutrActive triple-S 15-15-15 (25)
Ωmega fert 14-8-18 (30) +2MgO +TE
Ωmega fert 14-18-14 (27)
Complefert premium 8-12-18 (30) +2MgO +ΤΕ
Complefert special 12-8-17 (27) +2MgO +TE
Complefert extra 12-10-20 (28) +2MgO +ΤΕ
Complefert blue-star 12-12-17 (30) +2MgO +TE
Complefert magni-plus 14-7-14 (25) +4MgO +0,1Fe +0,1Zn

Basic fertilization

600 -1200 kg

* The dosages mentioned are indicative. Regarding the fertilizing of crops, one should take into account the advice of local agronomists.

The goal is to cover the needs of the plant in nutrients which are necessary for vegetative growth in the summer, flowering and fruit setting, as well as the development of the bolls.

Early application, before the emergence of the squares, is conducive to the timely entrance of the plants in the phase of reproduction, and it is essential to crop yields in the climate of Greece, where this plant has a limited growth cycle.

Dosage: – 1/2 of Nitrogen (Ν)

Ammoniacal Nitrogen increases flowering and reduces square, flower, and fruit shedding, which are caused when vegetative growth and fruiting compete with each other.

It is recommended that either Nitrogen fertilizers with high content in Ammoniacal Nitrogen (Fertammon) or stabilized Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NutrActive), which reduce Nitrogen losses from the soil and secure and adequate supply of the crops until the final stages of boll filling, be used once, or that Nitrogen be supplied in installments through the fertigation systems in the form of Ammonium Nitrate (Nutrammon solub), which provides the crops with a balanced ratio of Ammoniacal and Nitric Nitrogen.

Vine fertilizing
Type of Fertilizer Stage of application Dosage (kg/ha.)

NutrActive 27N 27-0-0 (28)
Nutractive Boro-plus 26Ν 26-0-0 (27) +0,3B
Novacan special 27N stabil 27-0-0 +5MgO +0,2B
Fertammon special 25-0-0 (28) + 0,5FeSO4 +0,5Zn
Nutrammon solub. 34,5-0-0
Nitrocan special 27-0-0 +5MgO +0,2B

(May-June)

Top-dressing fertilization of irrigated vineyards

Wine grape & Table & Raisin varieties

(June-August)

200-300 kg
Complefert master 15-5-20 (20) +2MgO +TE
Complefert extra 12-10-20 (20) +2MgO +TE
Complefert special 12-8-17 (27) +2MgO +TE
Complefert premium 8-12-18 (30) +2MgO +TE
200-400 kg

* The dosages mentioned are indicative. Regarding the fertilizing of crops, one should take into account the advice of local agronomists.

(Basic – top-dressing fertilization)

  • ● Extended nutrition of the vine, with slow-release Nitrogen
  • ● Integral nutrition in accordance with the requirements of the crop at each stage of development
  • ● Increased fructification due to the nutrition of stocks with both forms of Nitrogen
  • ● Minimization of losses due leaching and vaporization
  • ● Improved water and nutrient intake
  • ● High solubility of Phosphorus – up to 90% – for the nutrition of the crop in all types of soils
  • ● Flexibility with the time of fertilizing and guaranteed Nitrogen supply in all weather conditions
  • ● Possibility of basic fertilizing to be administered all at once in mid-winter, ensuring adequate rainfall for the movement of P and K in the soil without the risk of Nitrogen losses due to leaching
  • ● Labor and cost savings due to a smaller number of applications and quantity of fertilizer ς

(Basic – top-dressing fertilization)

  • ● Full in primary (N, P, K,), secondary (S, Mg), and trace elements (B, Fe, Zn), they offer integral nutrition to the vine with all the essential nutrients
  • ● Fully assimilable forms and a specialized ratio of the nutrients, tailored to the requirements of the stocks
  • ● High Ammoniacal Nitrogen content for an extended nutrition of the crop
  • ● Potassium in the form of Potassium Sulphate for higher production and of better quality
  • ● High solubility of Phosphorus – up to 90% – for the nutrition of the crop in all types of soils
  • ● Additional nutrition with Sulphur for a better utilization of the Nitrogen and Trace elements.
  • ● Yearly nutritional needs in kg/ha, Vineyard Type, Wine Varieties, Raisin Varieties, Table Varieties.
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